Bowling balls, books, and feathers 'drop' at the same rate of acceleration.

Anything which is pushed or pulled through space is subject to the laws of inertia. More massive bodies exhibit more resistance. It is more difficult to push a car in neutral down a road than it is to push a marble.

How does any theory of gravity that moves bodies through space towards the earth apply varrying amounts of energy or force to each body in order to move them all at the same rate? In order to move something through space, energy or force must be involved. Why should it adjust itself for all bodies like that?

Because a body is made of a bunch of atoms, each proton and counterpart neutrons+electrons (Atomic Number = Atomic Mass Units) would require exactly the same amount of energy to be put in motion. More mass, more necessary energy. You can move a feather by blowing, since it has much less mass than a car's mass. It doesn't adjust itself for all bodies, it is a constant per unit of AN/AMU. To push two trillion atoms of Sodium requires twice the energy of one trillion, no surprise on that, doesn't matter if you will push atom by atom or all of them at once in a huge rock, the total energy is just a scaling of the energy necessary to move a single atom.

Ants can move a dune, grain by grain of sand, with the same effort each time, the dune can be small or big. To move a larger dune at the same time they move a small, they need much more ants.

Mass, Acceleration, Force and Gravity, Inertial or Gravitational Mass, are inter-related.

The mass of Jupiter enter in formula as mass of Earth, attracting the same bowling ball 15lbs, here or there.

Even that G (gravitational constant) is the same, the final gravity acceleration (not a force, but you can think as it is a force) will be different due the difference of the masses. Don't mix up everything and confuse yourself.

The

gravitational mass and

inertial mass on Jupiter will be the same, since larger mass produces larger gravity acceleration, so F=ma still equal to Gm1m2/r²

This works the same on Earth or in Jupiter. F = 15lbs*JupiterGravityAcceleration = G*JupiterMass*15lbs/r², with variable r² (distance of masses).

I don't see why and where you think it is different.

I think you are thinking about pushing a bowling ball by hand, and thinking the force to achieve 1m/s² will be the same on Earth or in Jupiter, but gravity will be different on both... yes, but you are mistaken to use an external unequal acceleration, replace it by the planet acceleration of gravity and everything fits in place.