The sun would need to be seen larger than the earth for the rays to reach the observer where the rays meet. It is a matter of what the observer sees.

So, all you're doing is drawing a cone, with the base diameter equal to the size of the sun, and placing the observer at or above the point? The Earth is at some point between base and point, where its diameter equals the cross-section of the cone.

If the observer is AT the point, size of Earth matches their view of the Sun. You only get to see the Sun if you move the observer out beyond the point. No?

The answer to my problem was answered by model 29 above, where he states that where the rays meet the sun does get to be bigger than the earth due to different scales of perspective resizing. That is the only explanation to the conundrum.

No, the sun only gets to be bigger if the observer is beyond that point. If he is AT the point, size of Earth and Sun in his field of view are identical, so the Sun is fully obscured.

As he moves away from the point, a circle of sun becomes visible AROUND the Earth

What IS the "conundrum" ? You don't see the sun THROUGH the Earth, for the Earth will be in silhouette in the middle of the Sun.

A Full Moon is when the face toward the Sun is fully illuminated. We, the observers, by definition, MUST be offset to one side or other of this, or else we would be casting a shadow on the Moon (an eclipse). Therefore, our view MUST be of less than 100%, since we're looking at it from an angle of between 0 and 5% away from the Sun/Moon plane.

What's the issue here?