someled

Sorry that I was not careful enough in explaining the appearance of R in the equation in my submission from Dec 20. You were absolutely correct when you stated that what people perceive as the radius of a round earth should in no way affect the calculation of the amount of refraction of light in the atmosphere.

So let me try again :

As stated :

k = 503*p*(0.0343 + dT/dh)/(T*T)

divide that equation 6370,000 then by definition of k=R/r you get :

1/r = 79*10^{-6}*p*(0.0343 + dT/dh)/(T*T)

with r now in meters. The value of R does not appear anymore. You can verify the validity of this division by inspecting the equations ( through (10) in reference [3]. Feel free to calculate values for r for various values of dT/dh, the vertical temperature gradient, assuming standard atmospheric conditions.

Now, this equation and similar ones incoporating humidity, wave length of the light (think of lasers) and other effects have been used for decades. It seems to me somebody would have caught on to significant errors on the part of surveyors.

All this quarrel about refraction can of course be avoided by conducting a laser-based experiment inside a vacuum-filled, long tube. Maybe, if we were to look around, somebody has built already such a tube ? Maybe they did it for another purpose, but with the condition that the laser beam coincides with the tube's central axis all the way from one end to the other ? Did they consider earth's supposed curvature ?

Happy Holidays to you and everybody else ... Zack

I will make the point again , k is the coefficient of refraction deduced from the assumed (imaginary) curvature of a globe earth of R = 6370. Hence the silliness of using it anywhere in calculations . If these scientists wanted to carry out real experiments then the curvature , or lack of , would have to be accurately surveyed by good old proper measurement methods using real precision instruments and there would be no need to use imaginary values.

I mean the earth is either pear shaped or squashed orange shape , depending on which greengrocer you believe so why use this R = 6370 since it doesn't exist . It's interesting that in the case of k=1 light follows the curvature ,or lack of , of the earth . If Rowbotham had used a better telescope he'd have seen his own arris since the light was clearly following the " curve " on globeworld.

No one disputes that there are atmospheric effects but putting these down to refraction is pseudoscience . Refraction takes place at distinct boundaries dependent upon angle of incidence and differing density of medium involved . The atmosphere diffuses ,absorbs , diffracts etc.

Refraction calculated using this mathematical trickery is used to cover the fact that there is no curvature and the trick always provides an answer although it is nothing to do with reality .