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Topics - GreatScott

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Flat Earth Theory / Gravity Batteries
« on: May 05, 2022, 04:29:55 AM »
Gravity batteries work on the principle of stored gravitational potential energy.  The idea is lifting a heavy object and working against gravity generates gravitational potential energy in the object and when the object is allowed to fall, the energy is released and electricity can be generated.

I realize it sounds a little off the wall, but its a real thing and it works.

Gravitational potential energy is the work required to move an object in the opposite direction of Earth's gravity

In a gravity battery, a mass is displaced, or lifted, to generate gravitational potential energy that is transformed into electricity. Gravity batteries store gravitational potential energy by lifting a mass to a certain height using a pump, crane, or motor. After the mass is lifted, it now stores a certain gravitational potential energy based on the mass of the object and how high it was lifted. The stored gravitational potential energy is then transferred into electricity. The mass is lowered to fall back to its original height, which causes a generator to spin and create electricity.,a%20form%20of%20sustainable%20energy.

If you pick up a textbook from the floor and put it on a table, it will require about 10 joules of energy—a unit where 1 J = 1 kg*m22/s2. We can calculate the change in energy by lifting things using the work-energy principle. This says that work done on a system is equal to the change in energy of that system, and also that work depends on the force pushing on that system and the distance the force moves. Here I am using "system" to mean some thing or collection of things.

In the expression for work, Δr is the distance the force moves, and θ is the angle between the force and the direction it is moving.
If you want to lift a book with a mass (this includes most books you will find), then you will need to push up with a force equal in magnitude to the gravitational force. On the surface of the Earth, the gravitational force is the product of the mass (in kilograms) and the gravitational field with a value of approximately 9.8 newtons per kilogram.
So lifting a book up a distance h would have an angle between the force and displacement of 0° (remember that cosine of 0° = 0 1). The work done lifting an object of mass (m) and height (h) would then be:

This change in energy of the book is called gravitational potential energy. The more mass you lift, the greater the stored energy. The higher you lift the mass, the greater the potential energy.

A few more resources

Gravity energy storage relies on the potential energy of an object due to its height relative to another object and could be key for intermittent power sources, like solar and wind. The basic concept is that excess energy captured from something like a solar array is used to lift a heavy object up. When there is not enough sunlight for direct power use, the heavy object is dropped down, converting the gravitational potential energy into electricity via generator.

The premise of these batteries is simple and does not use rare materials to construct. When the sun is shining, enough power is generated to lift a heavy object. When there is no sun, this object will slowly descend through gravity, operating a generator that converts that potential energy into stored electricity.
It is very similar to pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES), which uses the downward flow of water to power a generator which then pumps the water back uphill.
This has been a technology long hypothesised for use in solar systems, but the technology has never really evolved – until now.

The system works by using an incredibly heavyweight and a long, tall structure. Some gravity batteries are housed in large, very tall buildings, while others use boreholes drilled deep into the earth to provide the height needed for the battery. 
At times when energy production outstrips demand, the surplus energy is diverted operate heavy machinery that winches the weight up to the top of the structure. When supply drops below demand and we need to harness the energy, the weight is dropped to generate electricity again using a generator and often utilising regenerative braking. The efficiency of a system like this can be as high as 90%.
Pumped hydro storage works on the same principle, except it uses reservoirs at different heights and moves the water between them to store and release energy as needed. The gravity battery has an advantage on this though as it can be used on much shorter notice. Moving a body of water is a more complex operation than dropping a weight. It also doesn’t have the same environmental impact as pumped hydro storage.

So the obvious question here is, on a flat earth where gravity doesn’t exist, where does the energy that is stored in a gravity battery come from?

Philosophy, Religion & Society / Questions about Zeteticism
« on: April 22, 2022, 05:09:05 PM »
Apologies if this isn’t posted in the right place.  Please move if it belongs somewhere else.

I’ve been reading on the wiki about Zeteticism  and trying to wrap my head around it.  The whole idea seems pretty vague to me, but from what I gather, you shouldn’t start with a hypothesis.

My question is, without a hypothesis, how can you do experiments?  You have to know what you are looking for to design and perform an experiment.

Here’s what I mean.  You know from experience that whenever you let go of a balloon, it floats away.  Except one time it doesn’t and you wonder why.  There could be dozens of reasons why.  If you want to find out why, you have to choose one of those “hypothetical” reasons and test it.  If the first reason doesn’t explain why, you start with a new hypothesis and keep moving through the other reasons until you find one that could explain why.

And more basically, you have to start with the assumption that there is something different this time from all the other times.  That by itself is a “hypothesis”.

Here’s a couple of quote from Rowbotham that makes my point.

We have an excellent example of a "Zetetic" process in an arithmetical operation, more especially so in what is called the "Golden Rule," or the "Rule of Three." If a hundredweight of any article costs a given sum, what will some other weight, less or more, be worth? The separate figures may be considered as the elements or facts in the inquiry; the placing and working of them as the logical arrangement of the evidence; and the quotient, or answer, as the fair and natural deduction,--the unavoidable or necessitated verdict. Hence, in every arithmetical or"Zetetic" process, the conclusion arrived at is essentially a quotient; which, if the details are correctly worked, must of necessity be true, and beyond the reach or power of contradiction.

The bolded part is the hypothesis.  You are starting with the assumption that something is true and working your calculations based on that.

Here’s another.

We have another example of the "Zetetic" process in our Courts of Justice. A prisoner is placed at the bar; evidence for and against him is demanded: when advanced it is carefully arranged and patiently considered. It is then presented to the Jury for solemn reconsideration, and whatever verdict is given, it is advanced as the unavoidable conclusion necessitated by the whole of the evidence. In trials, for justice, society would not tolerate any other procedure. Assumption of guilt, and prohibition of all evidence to the contrary, is a practice not to be found among any of the civilised nations of the earth--scarcely indeed, among savages and barbarians; and yet assumption of premises, and selection of evidence to corroborate assumptions, is everywhere and upon all subjects the practice of theoretical philosophers!

But there is an assumption of innocence, and it is up to the prosecution to disprove that assumption.  At least that is how it works in the US.  Innocence is the hypothesis by starting with the assumption that it is true.

I really don’t see any difference, in practice, between the Zetetic method and the scientific method.

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