133 miles is not close at all. There are lots of mountains west of Rainier and few lakes or rivers: https://www.google.com/maps/place/Mount+Rainier+National+Parkemail@example.com,-122.5803192,47095m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m5!3m4!1s0x5490cde6eec94b87:0x5cf4a1fb4f91a418!8m2!3d46.8799663!4d-121.7269094
From the link to the photo: This particular image was shot on the morning of October 26th, 2011
Diffuse reflected light will not create a shadow with an umbra because the light is reflected in all directions (unlike a mirror or highly polished surface). See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffuse_reflection And in the case of light reflecting off of many square miles of ground, there is even more scattered light coming from even more directions. So any shadows from all of that light coming from many different directions would in effect cancel each other out. That is why photographers use diffusers over their lights: to spread out the light source and eliminate harsh shadows. The only source of light that can cast a shadow like the one in the pictures is a point source or something close to a point source like the sun.
The fact that sunlight off of snow or water can cause blindness has nothing to do with the type of shadow that light would cast, or rather not cast. Try standing under an overhanging roof (to block direct sunlight) in front of a field of white snow, and see if the light from the snow can cause a dark shadow behind you. It won't. Yes there is a lot of light being reflected from all over that field into your eyes, and you better have sunglasses on. But again, because the light is coming from all directions, there would be no dark, well defined shadows behind you.
However, you are correct that nothing I write is ever conclusive.
Lots of mountains west of Rainier?!?!
I think you need to pony up pal.
You make the claim the light is diffused.
I happen to know for a fact light reflected from snow will cast a significantly dark shadow.
Same with light reflected from water.
Seen it with my own two eyes.
133 miles is obviously going to be a subjective measure, but unlike you I believe it distinctively qualifies as close.
It is not the entirety of the mountain casting a shadow, but rather that part subjected to light.
Any part of the top of the mountain would certainly cast a shadow from a light source below it.
And light from the Sun reflected off the surface of the Earth at an altitude lower than the summit of Rainier would qualify.